At One Belvedere, olive oil production is a lengthy process that demands attention and care at each stage to create a high-quality result. This is feasible due to its sustainable production and emphasis on the high quality of the olives utilized. The oil is derived from olives grown in accordance with regenerative agriculture principles.
Our olive groves are grassed all year, and we sow green manures without disturbing the natural flora in the fall. This allows us to have approximately 30 different plants per square meter, which is quite beneficial to usable entomofauna.
Sustainable Cultivation Methods for Superior Olive Quality
From March through November, dozens of different flower types allow insects that are beneficial to gather nectar in the olive trees. This is since we use a defense regimen that does not include the use of any synthetic fungicides or even copper to prevent a buildup in the soil.
Instead, we seek to boost the trees with propolis or wood distillates, and in spring, before flowering, we give the trees with algae extracts and plant hydrolysates with bio stimulating action to aid the trees during a complex time when the vintage’s quality will be determined.
All trees are pruned using the polyconic pot technique, which allows us to allow the plant’s natural development without producing an imbalance. This enables plentiful output of the best quality.
Pruning residues are mulched in the field rather than burned, as is sadly done in most olive groves. As a result, the soil at One Belvedere becomes progressively rich in vital organic matter while also retaining a large amount of water each season.
In contrast to mowed or tilled soils, the grasslands are crushed using a roller-crimper near the end of June, allowing us to keep the blooms alive for at least another month. Throughout the summer, the biomass on the ground will wilt and decompose, keeping the soil cool and ensuring the trees get enough water. The plant will not face water stress as a result, and the resulting oil will be far less harsh than oils produced when the trees are unable to obtain the necessary water.
We accomplish this because we cultivate our olive trees in a dryland regime, which means we don’t use a single liter of water for irrigation and rely entirely on rain and its wise usage. We aim to make the most of the resources we have without polluting the environment or causing an imbalance in the ecosystem.
Effective Fly Control and Polyphenol Enhancement for Exceptional Olive Oil Quality
The defense against the fly is accomplished through meticulous monitoring of the insects with pheromone traps. At the start of the ripening process, we protect the trees with wood distillate, which disorients the fly and stimulates the formation of polyphenols, compounds that are incredibly good to our bodies.
A high polyphenol content ensures that the oil keeps well without oxidizing for many months and that it is a food with extremely high nutraceutical value. Olive trees that do not use fly control, on the other hand, produce oils with high acidity that become rancid quickly and have unpleasant, if not blatant, flaws in the oil!
- Correggiolo, Frantoio, Leccino, and Moraiolo, in proportions of at least 80%.
- Other types found in olive groves may compete to a maximum of 20%.
And DOP TERRE DI SIENA oil, which is derived from olives grown in Siena’s olive gardens and belonging to the following cultivars:
- Frantoio, Correggiolo, Leccino, and Moraiolo (at least two of the cultivars present individually for at least 10% and together for at least 85%)
- Other cultivars may compete in amounts not exceeding 15%, including Pendolino, Maurino, Olivastra, Morchiaio, Pitursello, Americano, Arancino, Ciliegino, Filare, Gremignolo, Maremmano, Mignolo, and Olivo Bufalo.
Olive Grove Composition and PDO Varieties
The farm’s olive groves are made up of the most common kinds in the area, such as Leccino, Frantoio, Moraiolo, and Pendolino, and are on average approximately 40 years old, with one younger planting of about 20 years and two in full production of 35-40 years.
There are, however, a handful of extremely old trees, particularly near the house, that are at least 60 years old, and the first of the new olive gardens were planted in 2023 to produce single-varietal oils with separate collections.
There are up to two different PDOs in the area where the farm is located. Chianti Classico DOP oil is prepared from olives grown in the regions of Siena and Florence and comes from the following cultivars:
The olive harvest is an important stage in the production of olive oil. At One Belvedere, all harvesting is done by hand.
Because of the care and attention given to the olives, this kind of harvesting is favored, whereas mechanical harvesting is utilized for big olive groves that are routinely managed with the use of pesticides and frequent irrigations.
It is critical to harvest the olives at the proper moment of ripening, when approximately one-third of the olives begin to turn color, to ensure a high-quality oil.
The olives are carried to the mill on the same day, with the goal of not waiting more than 6 hours so that the olive comes precisely as it was on the tree, with all its properties intact.
Olive selection and cleaning: After harvesting, the olives are selected and cleaned. This step is critical for removing any contaminants like leaves or tiny branches.
Crushing and Gramoling
The olives are crushed after selection and cleaning to assist release the oil. This procedure is carried out using ultramodern mechanical mills that process the olives at a maximum temperature of 23°C to prevent heating the olives and losing the oil’s fragrances. The resulting paste is then put to a gram stage, which aids in the separation of the oil from the other pulp components.
Squeezing or centrifuging the previously produced paste yields olive oil. Traditional pressing is accomplished by spreading the material on overlapping fiscoli. At this stage, reverse compression increases oil release. Centrifugation, which is common in modern facilities, separates the oil from the water and solid wastes using high-speed centrifuges. This approach is more efficient and produces better oil.
Decanting and Storage
Following extraction, the oil is quickly filtered without allowing solid residues to decant. Stored in an oxygen-free environment until bottling in dark glass to prevent light from destroying the oil acquired after all these stages.
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